# Welcome to pyGenClean’s documentation!¶

## Introduction¶

Genetic association studies making use of high throughput genotyping arrays need to process large amounts of data in the order of millions of markers per experiment. The first step of any analysis with genotyping arrays is typically the conduct of a thorough data clean up and quality control to remove poor quality genotypes and generate metrics to inform and select individuals for downstream statistical analysis.

pyGenClean is a bioinformatics tool to facilitate and standardize the genetic data clean up pipeline with genotyping array data. In conjunction with a source batch-queuing system, the tool minimizes data manipulation errors, it accelerates the completion of the data clean up process and it provides informative graphics and metrics to guide decision making for statistical analysis.

pyGenClean is a command tool working on both Linux and Windows operating systems. Its usage is shown below:

\$ run_pyGenClean --help
usage: run_pyGenClean [-h] [-v] [--bfile FILE] [--tfile FILE] [--file FILE]
[--report-title TITLE] [--report-author AUTHOR]
[--report-number NUMBER]
[--report-background BACKGROUND] --conf FILE

Runs the data clean up (pyGenClean version 1.8.3).

optional arguments:
-h, --help            show this help message and exit
-v, --version         show program's version number and exit

Input File:
--bfile FILE          The input file prefix (will find the plink binary
files by appending the prefix to the .bim, .bed and
.fam files, respectively).
--tfile FILE          The input file prefix (will find the plink transposed
files by appending the prefix to the .tped and .tfam
files, respectively).
--file FILE           The input file prefix (will find the plink files by
appending the prefix to the .ped and .fam files).

Report Options:
--report-title TITLE  The report title. [default: Genetic Data Clean Up]
--report-author AUTHOR
The current project number. [default: pyGenClean]
--report-number NUMBER
The current project author. [default: Simple Project]
--report-background BACKGROUND
Text of file containing the background section of the
report.

Configuration File:
--conf FILE           The parameter file for the data clean up.


The tool consists of multiple standalone scripts that are linked together via a main script (run_pyGenClean) and a configuration file (the --conf option), the latter facilitating user customization.

The Data clean up protocol schema shows the proposed data cleanup pipeline. Each box represents a customizable standalone script with a quick description of its function. Optional manual checks for go-no-go decisions are indicated.

Data clean up protocol schema

## Installation¶

pyGenClean is a Python package that works on both Linux and Windows operating systems. It requires a set of Python dependencies and PLINK. Complete installation procedures are available for both Linux (32 and 64 bits) and Windows in the following sections.

## Input files¶

To use pyGenClean, two sets of files are required: a set of genotype files and a configuration file (using the INI format).

### Genotype files¶

The input files of the main program (run_pyGenClean) are either:

• PLINK’s pedfile format (use pyGenClean‘s --file option) consists of two files with the following extensions: PED and MAP.
• PLINK’s transposed pedfile format (use pyGenClean‘s --tfile option) consists of two files with the following extensions: TPED and TFAM.
• PLINK’s binary pedfile format (use pyGenClean‘s --bfile option) consists of three files with the following extensions: BED, BIM and FAM.

For more information about these file formats, have a look at PLINK’s website, in the Basic usage/data formats section (http://pngu.mgh.harvard.edu/~purcell/plink/data.shtml).

Warning

If the format used is the transposed one, the columns must be separated using tabulations, but alleles of each marker need to be separated by a single space.

To create this exact transposed pedfile format, you need to use the following PLINK’s options:

• --recode to recode the file.
• --transposed to create an output file in the transposed pedfile format.
• --tab to use tabulations.

### Configuration file¶

To customized pyGenClean, a basic configuration file is required. It tells which script to use in a specific order. It also sets the different options and input files, so that the analysis is easy to replicate or modify.

The configuration file uses the INI format. It consists of sections, led by a [section] header (contiguous integers which gives the order of the pipeline) and followed by customization of this particular part of the pipeline. Lines preceded by a # are comments and are not read by pyGenClean.

The following example first removes samples with a missing rate of 10% and more (section starting at line 1), then removes markers with a missing rate of 2% and more (section starting at line 6). Finally, it removes the samples with a missing rate of 2% and more (section starting at line 3).

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 [1] # Removes sample with a missing rate higher than 10%. script = sample_missingness mind = 0.1 [2] # Removes markers with a missing rate higher than 2%. script = snp_missingness geno = 0.02 [3] # Removes sample with a missing rate higher than 2%. script = sample_missingness mind = 0.02 

For a more thorough example, complete configuration files are available for download at http://www.statgen.org and are explained in the Configuration Files section. For a list of available modules and standalone script, refer to the List of Modules and their Options.

## Information about the protocol¶

The following sections describe the proposed protocol and provides information about which file should be looked for quality control. Finally, configuration files (with all available parameters) are given.

## The algorithm¶

All the functions used for this project are shown and explained in the following section:

## Citing pyGenClean¶

If you use pyGenClean in any published work, please cite the published scientific paper describing the tool.

Lemieux Perreault LP, Provost S, Legault MA, Barhdadi A, Dubé MP: pyGenClean: efficient tool for genetic data clean up before association testing. Bioinformatics 2013, 29(13):1704-1705 [DOI:10.1093/bioinformatics/btt261]